Friday, March 8, 2013

Effects on plants and acid deposition in reference to Geoengineering Climate


From:
20 reasons why geoengineering may be a bad idea
BY Alan Robock
http://www.thebulletin.org/files/064002006_0.pdf

4. Effects on plants. Sunlight scatters as it passes through stratospheric
aerosols, reducing direct solar radiation and increasing diffuse radiation,
with important biological consequences.

Some studies, including one that measured this effect in trees following the
Mount Pinatubo eruption, suggest that
diffuse radiation allows plant canopies
to photosynthesize more efficiently,
thus increasing their capacity as a carbon sink.[9]

 At the same time, inserting
aerosols or reflective disks into the atmosphere would reduce
 the total sunlight to reach Earth’s surface. Scientists
need to assess the impacts on crops and
natural vegetation of reductions in total,
diffuse, and direct solar radiation.

5. More acid deposition. If sulfate is
injected regularly into the stratosphere,
no matter where on Earth, acid deposition will increase
 as the material passes through the troposphere—the atmospheric layer
closest to Earth’s surface.

In 1977, Russian climatologist Mikhail
Budyko calculated that the additional
acidity caused by sulfate injections would
be negligibly greater than levels that resulted from air pollution.[10]

But the relevant quantity is the total amount of acid
that reaches the ground, including both
wet (acid rain, snow, and fog) and dry deposition (acidic gases and particles).
Any additional acid deposition would harm
the ecosystem, and it will be important to
understand the consequences of exceeding different biological thresholds.

Furthermore, more acidic particles in the troposphere would affect public health.
The effect may not be large compared to the
impact of pollution in urban areas, but in
pristine areas it could be significant.

References:

[9]. L. Gu et al., “Responses of Net Ecosystem Exchanges of Carbon Dioxide to Changes in Cloudiness: Results from Two North American Deciduous Forests,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 104, no. 31, pp. 421–31, 434 (1999); L. Gu et al
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/1999JD901068/abstract

Advantages of Diffuse Radiation for Terrestrial Ecosystem Productivity,”
Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 107, (2002); L. Gu et al., “Response
of a Deciduous Forest to the Mount Pinatubo
Eruption: Enhanced Photosynthesis,” Science, vol.
299, pp. 2,035–38 (2003).

[10]. Budyko, Climatic Changes

More links:

Re: Sunlight

Shedding Light on Gardening Success
Kerry VerMeulen
“All plants have specific light requirements – from full sun to full shade. Failing to meet their specific needs can cause various problems, including scorched leaves, leggy growth, bloom failure or even plant death.”

Do volcanic eruptions enhance or diminish net primary production?
Evidence from tree rings
Nir Y. Krakauer and James T. Randerson1
Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, December 2003

Control of atmospheric particles on diffuse radiation and terrestrial plant productivity
Kasturi Devi Kanniah
http://ppg.sagepub.com/content/36/2/209

Re: Acid rain

EPA Can't Stop the (Acid) Rain

EPA Faces Challenges in Addressing Damage Caused by Airborne Pollutants
GAO-13-39, Jan 24, 2013
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-13-39

Elucidation of endemic neurodegenerative diseases--a commentary.
Nishida Y. Chemical Institute for Neurodegeneration (CIN), Faculty of Science, Yamagata University

“It seems reasonable to consider that the essential origin for the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) should be the incorporation and accumulation of Al(III) and Mn(II) ions in the cells, and the sudden and explosive increase of scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the last decade may be partially due to "acid rain", because the acid rain makes Al(III) and Mn(II) ions soluble in the subterranean aquifers.”


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http://paper.li/oscare2000/1360165668

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http://paper.li/oscare2000/1347466963

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